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Amongst the bulk of later New Testament manuscripts it is generally possible to demonstrate a clear Byzantine majority reading for each variant; and a Greek New Testament text based on these majority readings—"The Majority Text"—has been produced by Zane C. Hodges and Arthur L. Farstad, although this text does not correspond to any one particular manuscript. ), 210, 212, 214, 215, 217, 218 (except Cath. ), 1449, 1452, 1470, 1476, 1482, 1483, 1492, 1503, 1504, 1506 (Gospels), 1508, 1513, 1514, 1516, 1517, 1520, 1521, 1523 (Paul), 1539, 1540, 1542b (only Luke), 1543, 1545, 1547, 1548, 1556, 1566, 1570, 1572, 1573 (except Paul? In this light, of course is clear that the translation of the Bible based on the Byzantine text corresponds superior with the original texts than the translations, which based on texts of Alexandria. There are different texts that the English translations of the Bible come from. ), 616, 618, 620, 622, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 632, 633, 634, 637, 638, 639, 640, 642 (except Cath. The Hebrew Bible was mainly written in Biblical Hebrew, with some portions (notably in Daniel and Ezra) in Biblical Aramaic.From the 6th century to the 10th century AD, Jewish scholars, today known as Masoretes, compared the text of all known biblical manuscripts in an effort to create a unified, standardized text. The Byzantine text of Matthew 27:34 uses the Greek term oxo, translated vinegar: "They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink." ), 379, 380, 381, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 390, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 398 (except Cath. [6] The Ethiopic text in the gospels of Mark and Matthew are closer to the Greek Majority text, while still differing in a number of notable readings; but the Ethiopic text of the rest of the New Testament is clearly Alexandrian. critical text and the majority text are close enough to the originals and to one another that God can work through either text to bring people to salvation This supports the views of scholars such as Harry Sturz (1984) and Maurice Robinson (2005) that the roots of the Byzantine text may go back to a very early date. In the last 120 years the attacks on the critical text of the Greek New Testament—and corresponding defense of the Textus Receptus (or, more broadly, the Byzantine text) have taken various forms. Available on Amazon . The New Testament has been transmitted to us in three major text types: the Byzantine, the Alexandrian and the Western texts. Let us give a proof from early Church Fathers showing the Byzantine text-type is very old. Modern translations mainly use Eclectic editions that conform more often to the Alexandrian text-type. What is the most accurate English translation of the Bible? 344–359 in. Since the eighteenth century, Bible scholars have divided the textual sources for the New Testament, primarily Greek manuscripts, into textual groupings, or ”text types,” such as Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine. It is commonly accepted as standard Byzantine text. This study is from Authority of Scripture available at Books . Greek Text: For example, of 522 complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the General Epistles collated by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Mü… Mark 1:13 looks like a combination of the Alexandrian and the Caesarean text. [22] Many of these readings have substantial support from other text-types and they are not distinctively Byzantine. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders. ), 1360, 1362, 1364, 1367, 1370, 1373, 1374, 1377, 1384, 1385, 1392, 1395, 1398 (except Paul), 1400, 1409 (Gospels and Paul), 1417, 1437, 1438, 1444, 1445, 1447, 1448 (except Cath. Dating from the fourth century, and hence possibly earlier than the Peshitta, is the Ethiopic version of the Gospels; best represented by the surviving fifth and sixth century manuscripts of the Garima Gospels and classified by Rochus Zuurmond as "early Byzantine". The Majority Text Manuscripts which the KJV, NKJV and MKJV all came from are the time-tested, trusted manuscripts that were all this world knew, for some 1500 years; The manuscripts used by Erasmus, Luther, Calvin, and all the reformers. 2306 (composite of parts from the 11th to the 14th centuries), 665, 657, 660, 1013, 1188, 1191, 1309, 1358, 1340, 1566, 2389, 2415, 2784, 2e, 2ap, 3, 9, 11, 15, 21, 32, 44, 46, 49, 57, 73, 76, 78, 80, 84, 95, 97, 105, 110, 111, 116, 119, 120, 122, 129, 132, 134, 138, 139, 140, 146, 156, 159, 162, 183, 187, 193, 196, 199, 202, 203, 217, 224, 226, 231, 240, 244, 245, 247, 261, 264, 267, 268, 269, 270, 275, 280, 281, 282, 297, 304, 306, 319, 320, 329, 334, 337, 347, 351, 353, 355, 356, 366, 374, 387, 392, 395, 396, 401, 407, 408, 419, 438, 439, 443, 452, 471, 485, 499, 502, 505, 509, 510, 514, 518, 520, 524, 529, 531, 535, 538, 550, 551, 556, 570, 571, 580, 587, 618, 620, 622, 637, 650, 662, 673, 674, 688, 692, 721, 736, 748, 750, 760, 765, 768, 770, 774, 777, 778, 779, 782, 787, 793, 799, 808, 843, 857, 860, 862, 877, 893, 896, 902, 911, 916, 922, 924, 936, 950, 967, 971, 973, 975, 980, 987, 993, 998, 1007, 1046, 1081, 1083, 1085, 1112, 1169, 1176, 1186, 1190, 1193, 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1217, 1218, 1224, 1231, 1240, 1301, 1315, 1316, 1318, 1323, 1350a, 1355, 1360, 1364, 1375, 1385, 1437, 1539, 1583, 1673, 1683, 1714, 1737, 1752, 1754, 1755a, 1755b, 1800, 1821, 1826, 1872, 1889, 1914, 1915, 1917, 1926, 1951, 1970, 1971, 1974, 1986, 1988, 2013, 2096, 2126, 2135, 2139, 2173, 2177, 2189, 2191, 2289, 2282, 2426, 2437, 2445, 2459, 2490, 2491, 2507, 2536, 2549, 2550, 2552, 2562, 2639, 2650, 2657, 2671, 2700, 2712, 2725, 2727, 2781, 2785, 2791, 2794 Zeolla's translation is produced by Darkness to Light Ministry (www.dtl.org).There is also a translation of the book of Revelation in print that is based on Robinson's text. This is the edition by Pierpont and Robinson of a Majority, or Byzantine, text of the New Testament. They summarize the problem early on in their work (p. 45) as follows: "A theoretical presumption indeed remains that a majority of extant documents is more likely to represent a majority of ancestral documents at each stage of transmission than vice versa." Read online Bible study, search parallel bibles, cross reference verses, compare translations & post comments in bible commentaries at qBible.com. KJV was translated from Masoretic Text (OT) & Textus Receptus (NT) and most other versions were translated from Biblia Hebraica (OT) & Westcott-Hort (NT). It has the Robinson-Pierpont 2017 Byzantine Majority Text alternating verse by verse with my new English translation. But a more accurate description would be to say that modern translations use an eclectic text. They realize the Bible was translated from the original languages by human beings, but argue for the superiority of the Byzantine or Majority text type, or for the Textus Receptus in particular, on the basis of the fact that this was the Bible of the Protestant Reformation. His latest book is The Epistle of Jude: Its Text and Transmission (Almqvist & Wiksell International, 2006), and he has contributed to Mark and Matthew I: Comparative Readings: Understanding the Earliest Gospels in their First-Century Settings (Mohr Siebeck, 2011), The Early Text … Would you like to choose another language for your user interface? This text is the best current scholarly recreation of the original text. It is in fact the "majority text" -- the text preserved in the majority of manuscripts. 23.4 Byzantine Text Type. The Byzantine family, also known as the Traditional or Majority Text, was the text used and preserved by the Greek Church from the time of the apostles until the era of movable type printing. Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont, The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform, 2005. This difference is … In other cases the situation is more complicated. I have uploaded a new PDF document, containing the General Epistles of the New Testament. For many advocates of the majority text view, a peculiar form of the doctrine of the preservation of Scripture undergirds the entire approach. The Textus Receptus and Modern Bible Translations ... John Chrysostom († 407) cited the Byzantine text of his time and is its oldest witness. PDF 3.5 MB, 530 footnotes. To give a feel for the difference between the Byzantine form of text and the Eclectic text, which is mainly Alexandrian in character, of 800 variation units in the Epistle of James collected by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, the Byzantine and Eclectic texts are in agreement in 731 of the places (a rate of 92.3%). ), 1068, 1069, 1070, 1072, 1073, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1078, 1080, 1081, 1083, 1085, 1087, 1088, 1089, 1094, 1099, 1100, 1101, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1107, 1110, 1112, 1119, 1121, 1123, 1129, 1148, 1149, 1150, 1161, 1168, 1169, 1171, 1172, 1173, 1174, 1176, 1177, 1185, 1186, 1187, 1188, 1189, 1190, 1191, 1193, 1196, 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1201, 1202, 1203, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1217, 1218, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1224, 1225, 1226, 1227, 1231, 1241 (only Acts), 1251 (? Kurt Aland, and Barbara Aland, "The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism", trans. The Byzantine text is the original, although the Byzantine text would be assembled later than the Alexandrian texts. It has undergone three revisions, incorporating more than 100,000 changes! The New Testament of the King James Version of the Bible was translated from editions of what was to become the Textus Receptus. Even in its 1611 English, the KJV is remarkably accurate and understandable, and it is still the most reliable translation on the market. The name has been retrospectively applied to all the printed Greek texts of the same Byzantine text-type Textus Receptus was established on the Byzantine text-type, also called the Majority Text, which represents over 90% of the 5,800+ Greek manuscripts of the New Testament still in existence today [3] Chrysostom and Asterius used text only in 75% agreed with the standard Byzantine text. The New Testament text of the Orthodox Church, the Patriarchal Text, as well as those utilized in the lectionaries, is based on this text-type. Compared to Alexandrian text-type manuscripts, the distinct Byzantine readings tend to show a greater tendency toward smooth and well-formed Greek, they display fewer instances of textual variation between parallel Synoptic Gospel passages, and they are less likely to present contradictory or "difficult" issues of exegesis. In Biblical textual criticism, the Byzantine text-type (also called Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text) is one of several text-types of the Greek New Testament manuscripts. A reading which my text did not follow but which is found in Hodges and Farstad's New Testament is the reading of nine "holy"'s instead of three in Rev. 1537: Matthew Bible: Matthew Bible Translations. Thus the Byzantine Text, the Traditional Text, -- 'The Greek Vulgate' and the Received Text are synonomous terms each describing the 'True Text' as it has held sway in the hearts of Christians from the earliest times. The name has been retrospectively applied to all the printed Greek texts of the same Byzantine text-type Textus Receptus was established on the Byzantine text-type, also called the Majority Text, which represents over 90% of the 5,800+ Greek manuscripts of the New Testament still in existence today (2) It is true that modern translations give greater weight to the Alexandrian family of texts. Critics note, however, that none of the earliest manuscripts or translations were Byzantine in form. ), 614 (in Cath. Compre online Bible versions and translations: Masoretic Text, ArtScroll, Alexandrian text-type, Byzantine text-type, Western text-type, Bible translations: ... Bible, Modern English Bible translations, de Source: Wikipedia na Amazon. The claim that modern Bible translations such as the New International Version (NIV), the New American Standard Bible (NASB), and the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) are based upon “corrupt” editions of the Greek and Hebrew texts is a common argument of King James Only advocates. C.S.P.M.T. Examples: Other examples of Byzantine readings were found in p66 in John 1:32; 3:24; 4:14.51; 5:8; 6:10.57; 7:3.39; 8:41.51.55; 9:23; 10:38; 12:36; 14:17. It is from this family that the manuscripts known as the Textus Receptus (also known as the Received or Stephens Text… It is the basis for modern Bible translations. Karl Lachmann (1850) was the first New Testament textual critic to produce an edition that broke with the Textus Receptus, relying mainly instead on manuscripts from the Alexandrian text-type. Since then, numerous English translations have sprung up, almost all of which have used a different textual basis from the one found in the KJV. Read Luke 12:20 - 'Greek NT: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)' translation - ειπεν δε αυτω ο θεος αφρον ταυτη τη νυκτι την ψυχην σου απαιτουσιν απο σου α δε ητοιμασας τινι εσται and Explanation of Luke 12 The first major English translation of the Bible to appear since the King James (1611) was the Revised Version of 1881. This is the edition by Pierpont and Robinson of a Majority, or Byzantine, text of the New Testament. The Byzantine stream is a gift of God to the Church because it gives us the greatest wealth of manuscripts, passed down from antiquity, in comparison to any other Greco-Roman documentation. Another characteristic is the grammar (e.g., οι δε ειπον; in Alexandrian text: οι δε ειπαν) and the different order of words. It is similar to an earlier production of Hodges and Farstad in being based on von Soden's apparatus, but without their stemmatic reconstruction of the Apocalypse and the Pericope Adulterae. The English translation entitled The Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament by Gary Zeolla was based on The Greek New Testament According to the Byzantine Text edited by Robinson and Pierpont. However, the Alexandrian text type is 200 years older. Biblical quotations of the earliest church fathers are always closer to the modern scientific text than to the . Daniel Wallace found only two agreements distinctively between papyrus and Byzantine readings. In Biblical textual criticism, the Byzantine text-type (also called Majority Text, Traditional Text, Ecclesiastical Text, Constantinopolitan Text, Antiocheian Text, or Syrian Text) is one of several text-types of the Greek New Testament manuscripts. The only safe determining factor to assess a translation's accuracy is to research its source text(s). For example: Also, the Byzantine text does not contain verses included by Textus Receptus: Luke 17:36; Acts 8:37; 15:34. 1535: Coverdale Bible: Coverdale: Translated by Miles Coverdale. These critics include the editors of the Hodges and Farstad text (cited below), and the Robinson and Pierpont text. The form of the Byzantine text found in the earliest witnesses is not a monolithic whole; but sometimes differs consistently from the form of text found in the most common sub-group of Byzantine manuscripts as they proliferated after the 11th century. Six verses that were not witnessed in any of these sources, he back-translated from the Latin Vulgate, and Erasmus also introduced many readings from the Vulgate and Church Fathers. The different Byzantine "Majority Text" of Hodges & Farstad as well as Robinson & Pierpont is called "Majority" because it is considered to be the Greek text established on the basis of the reading found in the vast majority of the Greek manuscripts. For example in 196… That is the… The new translations use an incorrect Greek text. The suggestions that have been put forward are: The standard Byzantine text used by the Eastern, Greek-speaking Greek Orthodox Church is supported by late minuscule manuscripts dating after the 4th century. Due to the pressure of his publisher to bring their edition to market before the competing Complutensian Polyglot, Erasmus based his work on around a half-dozen manuscripts, all of which dated from the twelfth century or later; and all but one were of the Byzantine text-type. You can choose a different translation of the Bible by selecting from the drop-down menu above. These translations have been made from the commonly available Hebrew texts of the Old Testament and the Byzantine text form of the New Testament. The only safe determining factor to assess a translation's accuracy is to research its source text(s). The claim that modern Bible translations such as the New International Version (NIV), the New American Standard Bible (NASB), and the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) are based upon “corrupt” editions of the Greek and Hebrew texts is a common argument of King James Only advocates. The Byzantine type is also found in modern Greek Orthodox editions. Majority Text advocates claim that the Byzantine Textform is the original form of the New Testament and thus goes back to the very beginning. Greek New Testament: Byzantine/Majority Text (2000)The Greek New Testament according to the Byzantine Textform, edited by Maurice A. Robinson and William G. Pierpont, 2000 edition. The Majority Text vs. Kurt Aland did not consider early Byzantine families such as E and Π to be classified as Byzantine manuscripts. ), 093 (Acts), 0103, 0104, 0105, 0116, 0120, 0133, 0134, 0135, 0136, 0142, 0151, 0197, 0211, 0246, 0248, 0253, 0255, 0257, 0265, 0269 (mixed), 0272, 0273 (?). He and his helpers deliberately combined the elements of the different earlier text types. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Source: Wikipedia com ótimos preços. A brief history of the majority text Majority Text advocates claim that the Byzantine Textform is the original form of the New Testament and thus goes back to the very beginning. It has all the Bibles in an Interlinear and Parallel Bible format, and an English/Greek analysis for each verse. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts. Even so, the difference in readings between these two text types is minimal, approximately 2%. Interlinear Text Sources: Hebrew Text: Westminster Leningrad Codex text courtesy of www.tanach.us. Attacks on the Critical Text of the Greek New Testament. many of current Bible translations are based on, are inferior to the traditional texts. [12] For example, Mark 1:2 reads "As it is written in the prophets..." in the Byzantine text; whereas the same verse reads, "As it is written in Isaiah the prophet..." in all other early textual witnesses. The Critical Text or Minority Text consists of 3 manuscripts and a few small sections of other manuscripts. Pastor Steve Waldron, New Life of Albany - Albany, Ga http://newlifeofalbany.com/ Textus Receptus Bibles is a Bible study website with historical information on the Textus Receptus and the Bible translations. This is a partial list of major textual variants in the New Testament, with a focus on differences between categories of New Testament manuscript.. )[21] Some authors have interpreted this as a rehabilitation of Textus Receptus. – Byzantine Greek New Testament: Introduction 2014 8 pages This gives a historical account of the preservation of the Majority Text. They were discovered in the 1800′s in Egypt. Old Testament Hebrew-English Holy Name King James Version with Strong's numbers. The Byzantine Majority New Testament is extremely literal. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts. The Textus Receptus differs from the Majority Text in 1,838 Greek readings, of which 1,005 represent "translatable" differences.[18]. (Chilton Book Publishing, 2005). In Rev. Around 6,500 readings will differ from the Hodges and Farstad text depending on which modern critical text is taken as an exemplar of the Alexandrian text-type (Wallace 1989). ), 1577, 1583, 1594, 1597, 1604, 1605, 1607, 1613, 1614, 1617, 1618, 1619, 1622, 1628, 1636, 1637, 1649, 1656, 1662, 1668, 1672, 1673, 1683, 1693, 1701, 1704 (except Acts), 1714, 1717, 1720, 1723, 1725, 1726, 1727, 1728, 1730, 1731, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1736, 1737, 1738, 1740, 1741, 1742, 1743, 1745, 1746, 1747, 1748, 1749, 1750, 1752, 1754, 1755a, 1755b, 1756, 1757, 1759, 1761, 1762, 1763, 1767, 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, 1800, 1821, 1826, 1828, 1829, 1835, 1841 (except Rev. Choose a book from the list on the left, or start reading one of the suggested stories below. (Modern Bible Translations Unmasked by Russell & Colin Standish; p.37-38). The Byzantine text type is based on the harmonizing work of Lucian of Antioch around 310 A.D. Textus Receptus Bibles is a Bible study website with historical information on the Textus Receptus and the Bible translations. [8][9][10], 14, 27, 29, 34, 36e, 63, 82, 92, 100, 135, 144, 151, 221, 237, 262, 278b, 344, 364, 371, 405, 411, 450, 454, 457, 478, 481, 564, 568, 584, 602, 605, 626, 627, 669, 920, 1055, 1076, 1077, 1078, 1203, 1220, 1223, 1225, 1347, 1351, 1357, 1392, 1417, 1452, 1661, 1720, 1756, 1829, 1851, 1880, 1905, 1920, 1927, 1954, 1997, 1998, 2125, 2373, 2414, 2545, 2722, 2790, 7p, 8, 12, 20, 23, 24, 25, 37, 39, 40, 50, 65, 68, 75, 77, 83, 89, 98, 108, 112, 123, 125, 126, 127, 133, 137, 142, 143, 148, 150, 177, 186, 194, 195, 197, 200, 207, 208, 210, 212, 215, 236, 250, 259, 272, 276, 277, 278a, 300, 301, 302, 314, 325, 331, 343, 350, 352, 354, 357, 360, 375, 376, 422, 458, 465, 466, 470, 474, 475, 476, 490, 491, 497, 504, 506, 507, 516, 526, 527, 528, 530, 532, 547, 548, 549, 560, 583, 585, 596, 607, 624, 625, 638, 639, 640, 651, 672, 699, 707, 708, 711, 717, 746, 754, 756, 773, 785, 809, 831, 870, 884, 887, 894, 901, 910, 919, 937, 942, 943, 944, 964, 965, 991, 1014, 1028, 1045, 1054, 1056, 1074, 1110, 1123, 1168, 1174, 1187, 1207, 1209, 1211, 1212, 1214, 1221, 1222, 1244, 1277, 1300, 1312, 1314, 1317, 1320, 1324, 1340, 1343, 1373, 1384, 1438, 1444, 1449, 1470, 1483, 1513, 1514, 1517, 1520, 1521, 1545, 1556, 1570, 1607, 1668, 1672, 1693, 1730, 1734, 1738, 1770, 1828, 1835, 1847, 1849, 1870, 1878, 1879, 1888, 1906, 1907, 1916, 1919, 1921, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1946, 1955, 1980, 1981, 1982, 2001, 2007, 2098, 2132, 2133, 2144, 2172, 2176, 2181, 2183, 2199, 2275, 2277, 2281, 2386, 2295, 2307, 2381, 2386, 2430, 2442, 2447, 2451, 2458, 2468, 2475, 2539, 2547, 2559, 2563, 2567, 2571, 2587, 2637, 2649, 2661, 2723, 2746, 2760, 2782, 2787 Obviously, a majority text will favor the Byzantine text simply because there are many more texts of this type available. Many of the Byzantine manuscripts range between the seventh and tenth-centuries; while many more continue into the eleventh and twelfth-centuries. The Byzantine Text Approach (Textus Receptus) The Byzantine text is also found in a few modern Orthodox editions, as the Byzantine textual tradition has continued in the Eastern Orthodox Church into the present time. Two broad explanations have been offered for this observation: In Mark 6:33 and Luke 24:53 the Byzantine text-type looks like a combination of the Alexandrian and the Western text. ), 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 538, 540, 541, 546, 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 553, 554, 556, 558, 559, 560, 564, 568, 570, 571, 573, 574, 575, 577, 578, 580, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588, 592, 593, 594, 596, 597, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604, 605, 607, 610 (in Cath. [23], The largest of the three major groups of New Testament Greek texts, Distribution of Byzantine type minuscule manuscripts by century, εγγιζει μοι ο λαος ουτος τω στοματι αυτων και, εκει και προηλθον αυτοις και συνηλθον προς αυτον, εκει και προηλθον αυτοις και συνεδραμον προς αυτον, βαπτισμους ξεστων και ποτηριων και αλλα παρομοια τοιαυτα πολλα ποιειτε, πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται και πασα θυσια αλι αλισθησεται, Ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα, Gordon D. Fee, "The Use of Greek Patristic Citations in New Testament Textual Criticism: The State of the Question," pp. ), 1252, 1254, 1255, 1260, 1264, 1277, 1283, 1285, 1292 (except Cath. In Christianity, the term Textus Receptus (Latin for "received text") designates all editions of the Greek texts of the New Testament from the Novum Instrumentum omne established by Erasmus in 1516 to the 1633 Elzevier edition; the 1633 Elzevier edition is sometimes included into the Textus Receptus. 632 and 1227 (composites of parts from the 12th to the 14th centuries), 52, 55, 60, 74, 107, 121, 128, 136, 141, 147, 167, 170, 192, 198, 204, 219, 220, 227, 248, 260, 284, 291, 292, 293, 303, 305, 309, 327, 328, 342, 359, 361, 362, 384, 388, 390, 410, 449, 469, 473, 477, 479, 482, 483, 484, 496, 500, 501, 511, 519, 533, 534, 546, 553, 554, 558, 573, 574, 592, 593, 597, 601, 663, 666, 677, 684, 685, 689, 691, 696, 705, 714, 715, 725, 729, 737, 757, 759, 775, 811, 820, 825, 830, 835, 840, 897, 898, 900, 912, 914, 966, 969, 970, 981, 995, 997, 999, 1000, 1004, 1008, 1011, 1015, 1016, 1031, 1050, 1052, 1053, 1057, 1069, 1070, 1072, 1087, 1089, 1094, 1103, 1107, 1129, 1148, 1149, 1150, 1161, 1177, 1201, 1205, 1206, 1208, 1213, 1215, 1226, 1238, 1255, 1285, 1339, 1352a, 1400, 1594, 1597, 1604, 1622, 1717, 1717, 1728, 1731, 1736, 1740, 1742, 1772, 1855, 1858, 1922, 1938, 1941, 1956, 1972, 1992, 2111, 2119, 2140, 2141, 2236, 2353, 2376, 2380, 2390, 2409, 2420, 2423, 2425, 2457, 2479, 2483, 2502, 2534, 2540, 2558, 2568, 2584, 2600, 2624, 2627, 2631, 2633, 2645, 2646, 2658, 2660, 2665, 2670, 2696, 2699, 2724, 2761, 18, 45, 53, 54, 66, 109, 155, 171, 182, 185, 190, 201, 214, 223, 232, 235, 243, 246, 290, 308, 316, 324, 358, 367, 369, 381, 386, 393, 394, 402, 404, 409, 412, 413, 414, 415, 417, 425, 426, 480, 492, 494, 498, 512, 521, 523, 540, 577, 578, 586, 588, 594, 600, 603, 604, 628, 633, 634, 644, 645, 648, 649, 680, 686, 690, 698, 718, 727, 730, 731, 734, 741, 758, 761, 762, 763, 764, 769, 781, 783, 784, 786, 789, 790, 794, 797, 798, 802, 806, 818, 819, 824, 833, 834, 836, 839, 845, 846, 848, 858, 864, 866a, 867, 889, 890, 904, 921, 928, 938, 951, 952, 953, 959, 960, 977, 978, 1020, 1023, 1032, 1033, 1036, 1061, 1062, 1075, 1099, 1100, 1119, 1121, 1185, 1189, 1196, 1234, 1235, 1236, 1248, 1249, 1252, 1254, 1283, 1328, 1330, 1331, 1345, 1350b, 1356, 1377, 1395, 1445, 1447, 1476, 1492, 1503, 1504, 1516, 1543, 1547, 1548, 1572, 1577, 1605, 1613, 1614, 1619, 1637, 1723, 1725, 1726, 1732, 1733, 1741, 1746, 1747, 1761, 1762, 1771, 1856, 1859, 1899, 1902, 1918, 1928, 1929, 1952, 1975, 2085, 2160, 2261, 2266, 2273, 2303, 2309, 2310, 2355, 2356, 2406, 2407, 2431, 2441, 2454, 2466, 2484, 2503, 2593, 2626, 2629, 2634, 2651, 2653, 2666, 2668, 2679, 2698, 2716, 2765, 2767, 2773, 2774, 2775, 2780, 2783, 30, 47, 58, 70, 149, 285, 286, 287, 288, 313, 368, 373, 379, 380, 385, 418, 432, 446, 448, 493, 525, 541, 575, 616, 664, 694, 739, 801, 841, 844, 853, 880, 955, 958, 961, 962, 1003, 1017, 1018, 1024, 1026, 1059, 1060, 1105, 1202, 1232, 1233, 1247, 1250, 1260, 1264, 1482, 1508, 1617, 1626, 1628, 1636, 1649, 1656, 1745, 1750, 1757, 1763, 1767, 1876, 1882, 1948, 1957, 1958, 1964, 1978, 2003, 2175, 2178, 2221, 2352, 2418, 2452, 2455, 2554, 2673, 2675, 2691, 2704, 2729, 90, 335, 445, 724, 745, 755, 867, 957, 1019, 1030, 1065, 1068, 1088, 1239, 1362, 1370, 1374, 1618, 1749, 1768, 1861, 1883, 1911, 1930, 1931, 1936, 1937, 1979, 2009, 2218, 2378, 2422, 2496, 2501, 2532, 2555, 2572, 2573, 2579, 2635, 2636, 2690, 2711, 2721, 2779, 289, 868, 956, 963, 988, 1044, 1063, 1101, 1104, 1303, 1748, 1869, 2267, 2450, 2497, 2581, 2619, 2656.[11]. Paul W. Exposito's English translation of the Byzantine Majority Text is generally literal , yet clear, easy-to-read, and insightful. A downfall of this approach is that any widely disseminated errors will be present in the finished work. Bible Translation. There are no consistent Byzantine witnesses amongst the early New Testament papyri. A new scholarly edition of the Byzantine Text of John's gospel, (funded by the United Bible Societies in response to a request from Eastern Orthodox Scholars), was begun in Birmingham, UK. The New Testament text of the Orthodox Church, the Patriarchal Text, as well as those utilized in the lectionaries, is based on this text-type. Contained only the book of Jonah. [7], 2, 3, 6 (Gospels and Acts), 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28 (except Mark), 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61 (Gospels and Acts), 63, 65, 66, 68, 69 (except Paul), 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104 (except Paul), 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 155, 156, 159, 162, 167, 169, 170, 171, 177, 180 (except Acts), 181 (only Rev. that the Byzantine text-type transmits a text closest to the primary form of the New Testament books; whose early manuscript witnesses have not survived, as this text-type predominated in regions where the climate did not favour the preservation of papyrus; that the Byzantine text represents a consistent exercise in textual compilation and correction from around the 4th century, the editors having eclectically selected those readings from a range of early manuscripts, that best conformed to their presupposed standards of the characteristics to be expected in the New Testament text. In this light, of course is clear that the translation of the Bible based on the Byzantine text corresponds superior with the original texts than the translations, which based on texts of Alexandria. No major Bible versions have been translated from a majority text. Their premise is that the doctrine of the preservation of Scripture requires that the early manuscripts cannot point to the original text better than the later manuscripts can, because these early manuscripts are in the minority.Pickering also seems to embrace such a doctrine. In the discussion that follows, they reason that the "incalculable and fortuitous complexity of the causes here at work" in the transmission of the text leads them to the conclusion that "every ground for expecting 'a priori' any sort of correspondence of numerical proportion between existing documents and their less numerous ancestors in any one age falls to the ground."[16]. 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