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rites of passage examples in different cultures

Western society has no such widely practiced … For most people, physical maturity occurs in any case, whereas only those who quest for self-identity achieve psychological maturity. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Don’t waste Your Time Searching For a Sample. The ritual concludes with the individual performing some ritualistic act that reflects his/her new status, thus showing the community that they are ready to embrace their new position and the responsibilities that come with it. Most of the boys in this culture participate in this ritual. Here activities include challenging hikes and “vision quest” style nights alone in the wilderness in an attempt to promote self-reliance. This rebellion comes about from the feelings he feels about his father and the way his father controls the family with an iron fist. A rite of passage can be further divided into three stages; these stages include the pre-liminal stage which is related to separation from an initiate’s previous life, the liminal stage where the initiates are separated from the society and have to undergo various rituals before they reach the post-liminal stage which is related to their new status or state of life (Lundberg, 2016). It’s a universal mark indicative of transitioning from adolescence to adulthood in order to be accepted in a social group. Students looking for free, top-notch essay and term paper samples on various topics. If you have any question you can ask below or enter what you are looking for! Users may experience withdrawal effects in the event that they stop taking the drugs (Pritzker & Minter, 2014). c. At the end of the program writes Aminifu Harvey and Julia Rauch of Health and Social Work magazine, the boys “mark their passage to manhood by giving themselves another African name, based on their personality, at the final retreat. The Kumbh Mela is a Hindu pilgrimage and festival held approximately every 12 years that can attract more than 60 million people such that it has set records for the largest gathering of people. It is always going to be worth it, remarkable in your life. (2014). The liminal phase is a mediating transitional phase between the initial status and the new status achieved at the end of the ritual (Kunin, 2002, p. 208). This takes place because although John can help control his family, he has no authority whatsoever about the topic of racism. The information further empowers the women to make important decisions and be more influential in village issues, thus becoming more independent and completing their transformation. Boys between the ages of 10-20 come together to be initiated as the new “warrior class” of the tribe, placed in dozens of houses built for the occasion. As the women age, get married, and give birth, their participation in economic and social life increases is when the liminal phase begins as they begin to learn more norms and go through rituals such as childbirth and the gathering of information through social interactions. The traditional American wedding ceremony is such a rite of passage. Also, they have to fast the first five days and during the first month, they can only eat wild fruits. One rite of passage for these tribal members includes the building of the first igloo. In Washington and the entire United States, rites of passage are becoming more popular as a way to fulfill the spiritual and moral needs of youth while identifying them to a community. Yet our diversity prevents us from having a single experience, common to all, that celebrates our entrance into the adult community. However, there are still a select few who take on the traditions of their ancestors by living out in the harsh frozen tundra. You either do it or you’re out. The third phase is when you have reentered society and have completed a rite that has changed your previous status. Rites of passage are special rituals societies employ to assist their members at key times of biographical change. In this mini-unit we will study these significant rites of passage and how different cultures uniquely mark these changes as they come to pass in the lives of their people. Rites of passage in adolescence are a cross-cultural phenomenon. Maturity falls into two categories, physical maturity, and psychological maturity. After the speeches are done, four of the faculty members begin to call out names by rank if you wore white, which means you had a 4.0 GPA or higher, and in alphabetical order, if you wore green. It makes you realize and connect with other people that have been through the same that you have. A rite of passage can be one day long, like a bachelor, a marriage, confirmations, bar mitzvahs, and others, or they can take a month like, in the Sambia tribe, a guy for becoming a man has to do a 3 stage passage of a month-long. I once heard of the rite of passage of a culture that woman had to be circumcised and I just thought that it was unnecessary and ridiculous for it to be the transection for a girl to a woman. The female’s passage into womanhood is her first menses. In this vision, a voice calls out to John and reveals to him about the black curse. During this huge 15th birthday party, which is both a social and religious event, the family celebrates the young woman’s passage … II. Once the tools are done being prepared, the ear piercers hold a stick in their hand, and then as the tempo and intensity of the chanting continue, they are given a sign by the sponsor that the ear piercing should begin. This may include a change of dress, a change in the geological area, or ritual cleansing. This may be different for individuals using alcohol and other drugs where some of these drugs are unregulated (Pritzker & Minter, 2014). Conscious altering drugs have a limited effect in their initial use and problems come due to continued use as this may lead to drug abuse. b. In researching this topic, I have discovered the important role rites of passage play for youth around the world, and I would like to share this with you this afternoon. Transition (Liminal Rites): The phase of a rite of passage that is in-between a persons or group of peoples departure from their previous status and their arrival into the new. Yet Cassandra Delaney writes about graduates, “They often are not equipped with the necessary components of a stable adult personality such as a well-reasoned moral code, a faith or world review which sustains them during the crisis, and perhaps most importantly, a positive and cohesive self-image. According to Van Gennep, he identifies this as incorporation (97). Baldwin uses racism as a sub-theme of rights of passage. The father can only give food to them through an opening. Piehler, T. F., & Dishion, T. J. John however must undergo a number of tests in order to become one of God s servants. When a girl leaves the Fattening Room, she is considered a woman. 2. Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, 44(C), 328-333. I personally believe that being part of a society is important to daily life everywhere. In some cultures, the dead are taken to a crematory, and in other cultures, the dead are given a burial. The act implied that Mat and Yusof had faith in Raybeck as they had shared their misdoings (Raybeck, 1996, p. 67). By putting this herbal infusion on their earlobes, this is considered a liminal symbol, which marks the condition of this ceremony as extraordinary. They have existed throughout human history and may be a significant factor in the development of a stable adult personality. For example, there’s a rite called “the white coat ceremony” for doctors; that is when you finish your studies and have your first official coat. The Kalapalo call this ritual ipoñe and it is very important to them as it symbolizes the differences between men and women. In conclusion, the length of the ritual of the Kalapalo and the length of my graduation differ greatly. Some rites of passage aren’t exactly as easy or as sweeter as others. Although at first John does not comprehend this message, after some time, he begins to understand the role of his father. In traditional rites of passage quests, it usually involves A male moving from boyhood to manhood by being separated from his family and village and enduring periods of isolation and tough challenges to see if he can survive on his own and once he sees this vision that will become his guardian spirit, he then returns back to his village as an adult. Some people think that some rites are dangerous and violent and should be stopped because it involves things like murder. Referring back to Van Gessep s analysis of rites of passage, the analysis drawn can show that incorporation and separation exist as opposites. There is a break in the ritual where the boys are allowed to relieve themselves so they will not urinate or defecate on themselves while being pierced. Therefore, these would be the pre-liminal phase in the rites of passage. Each ceremony is unique and meaningful to one's own culture. During this seclusion, they can not leave and they can not be visited. John leaves his current state to become part of the church. This statement makes John thoughtful; he begins to understand that society contains many white people that hate the black race. Additionally, the liminal phase occurs during the wedding ceremony when both groom and bride’s status changes from single to married. He has successfully achieved authentic conversion. Patriarchy provides many dissimilarities from racism. He had also given up alcohol and pork consumption in the village as it was deemed as a sin in Islam. In the pre-liminal phase, there are symbolic behaviors to indicate an individual’s detachment from their current social structure and their previous social status (Froggatt, 1997). Instead, all 500 of us had to be placed in our class ranking order according to GPA and sat accordingly. Essayscollector.com, Rites of Passage Essay. On the second night, the boys are undressed from the decorations and the singing continues by the host village and the agifoñati, which is a medicine used to help the bleeding, is applied. spam or irrelevant messages, We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. An article in the Spokane Spokesman-Review by Jeanette White tells of Stan Crow, who runs a three-week program called “The Coming of Age Journey. A rite of passage can be a one day long, like a bachelor, a marriage, confirmations, bar mitzvahs and other, or they can take a month, like in the Sambia tribe, a guy for becoming a man has to do a 3 stage passage of a month long. With this help and guidance, John found God more easily. Even in Washington State, rites of passage are growing. Payment methods: VISA, MasterCard, JCB, DIscover, Prices start at $10Min. Rites of passage were first described by anthropologist Arnold van Gennep (1960) as a way of accepting the many rituals and rites observed in conventional cultures, and their significance to the dynamics of both individual and group life within the culture. From Aborigines in Australia to New York, rite of passage is used to separate the men from the boys. Some of the cultural rites of passage fall into three main phases: separation, transition, and incorporation, these ones are the toughest ones. Many different experiences may be considered "rites of passage" that distinguish an adolescent from an adult. There are also smaller but important rites that belong to small things such as work. In Western culture, we are familiar with such rites … In order to prepare for graduation, there are some steps I had to take in order to make it through this process. It is often a period in which the initiates are taught those things that will be needed to function in the new social position. For example, in the sub-theme of religion, incorporation, and separation occurs. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. Even in tribes or cities or smaller groups. At that moment, John realizes that his race is ostracized by white society. Firstly, in a Jewish wedding, it is traditional for the bride and groom to remain separated for the week before their wedding. In the United States, questions have been raised as to whether rites of passage like those used by Africans, Native Americans, or others might be useful in helping with social problems. A rite of passage is a ceremony and this ceremony marks the transition from one phase of life to another. Consequently, Raybeck was able to query about village issues which were initially kept from him, and hence, he could use these insiders’ knowledge to get more information from other villagers. The same also applies to religion; he undergoes authentic conversion. James Baldwin contrasts the sub-themes in an effort to gauge maturity in all aspects of John Grimes’s life. 10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.022. At the start of Raybeck’s fieldwork in Kelatan, although he did some minor preparation such as learning the language and culture in the hope of understanding the new culture prior to the actual fieldwork, they proved to be of little help as Raybeck and his wife, Karen still experienced multiple culture shock during their initial weeks (Raybeck, 1996, p. 21). Today we will look at the ways in which cultures throughout the world have used rites of passage to mark the transition to adulthood for both boys and girls, and how elements of those rituals are being used today in American society. Perhaps some are yet mired in that no man’s land called adolescence. 4. Better or more difficult. This portrayed the pre-liminal phase where he left his initial society and dove into a new culture. Such as the confirmation or bar mitzvahs. After the room is cleaned thoroughly, no one is allowed into it until the mother is nearing the time for the delivery. d. In this way, African-Americans use the rite of passage concept to develop a positive sense of identity for youth. But in the end, this culture has its own beliefs and the fact that for them its important I think its always worth it. Among the Kalapalo of Central Brazil, there is a rite of passage for boys that involves ear piercing. Female friends and family teach the girls how a woman should act. Example #5 1. By contrasting the sub-themes, Baldwin effectively describes the multitude of ways in which John progresses. A representative example is afforded by the traditional rites surrounding childbirth as these were commonly … In other tribes doing jumping from a huge mountain being held only by a rope on your feet, doing circumcision to women and men, let themselves get hurt and bleed and other terrible stuff are huge deals for their societies that sometimes is not an option. deadline 3 hoursWriters: ESL, ENL, Payment methods: VISA, MasterCard, American Express, Prices start at $11Min. A commonality in all phases is that transformation is a key element in shaping the individual as they go through these rites of passage. It would always be important. Each different culture or society may choose to mark these rites in very different ways. For other uses, see Rite of passage (disambiguation). While in the second phase, I had to spend the next two hours in the ceremony sitting by people I didn’t even know went to my high school and while in that chair, I sat and listened to the administration and faculty speak about our class and how proud they were and other announcements they had. After John completes his rites of passage for religion, he finds himself part of a larger community. John s earliest memories bore semblances of a church and a hurry and brightness of Sunday mornings (Baldwin 11). Mexico/Latin America. This type of racism exists, according to Http://www.Pinkmonkey.com, when the kind of thinking produced by African Americans–or any group targeted by racism– believe the stereotypes about themselves and imagine that European Americans are superior. Baldwin incorporates relating sub-themes in order to measure collectively John Grimes growth. Initiation ritual of boys in Malawi. Rites of Passage ●A ceremony, ritual or event that marks a change in life or status ●Most cultures have ceremonies to mark birth, adolescence, marriage and death, but how they mark these occasions varies greatly ●Some rites of passage are marked by elaborate ceremonies while others are more informal Reducing substance use during adolescence: a translational framework for prevention. Finally, he ventures into the wilderness or desert on his own, fasting until he receives a vision that will determine his new name and the direction of his life. Although the boys have their ears pierced, they still have not reached the third phase. Rites of passage help many people feel part of their respective societies. (2016, Jul 19). More contemporary rites of passage from my own experience would be graduation. On the Sambia tribe, doing homosexual acts and digesting another man’s semen is as important to the Sambia culture as a simple confirmation to a Christian community. Then, there is a date set for the ritual and only hosts and assistants usually attend the ritual itself, although other village groups are invited. In cultural traditions, special attention is paid to the care of the dead so that bad luck will not occur. In one way, John became more mature and aware of himself in matters of religion. Both examples consist of similar structures – the process of separation, transition, and reincorporation. But in the end, they are worth it. Both rituals had a collective experience, in which the ceremony was done as a group rather than an individual. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Trough the recognition of the "same" in the otherness of the other, we tend to be more open to this same otherness and the alterity of other cultures. 3. They even feel the need to be accepted in their society and it has always been the same but in so many different kinds of societies. The fathers of the boys begin to place portions of food in front of their sons and instruct them to share the food with the crowd. The participants go to bathe and immediately after the ear piercing begins. Separation (Pre-liminal Rites): In this phase a person or group of people who are performing the rite of passage are removed from their society and depart from their existing status while preparing to move into the next. How Does Drug Abuse Affect Personal Development of Hong Kong Teenagers? Instead, they remain secluded for three months. John Grimes portrays a typical African American in a white-dominant society. The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania have several rites of passage that carry boys into manhood. The ritual marks the passage from child to adult male, each subgroup having its customs and expectations. Regardless of the method, bridging the gap between childhood and adulthood is , and will always be , one of the most universal and important milestones of human life. (Transition)These examples of the rites of passage for Navajo males and Okrika females show us how different cultures mark the transition from childhood to adult status in the community. In many cultures, this is used to mark the socially recognized transition to sexual maturity. a. Finally, in the post-liminal phase, the Kelantanese women are able to gain higher social status and are eligible to participate in village affairs by going through the symbolic nature of marital status, age and childbirth. In order for John to complete his rites of passage, he must forgive his father and thus accepts Christ s doctrine of love. Knowing that Raybeck did not share or exploit the knowledge that was given to him, the villagers began to trust him and were more willing to share sensitive information with him. We were not allowed to sit with our families. The Okrika of Nigeria celebrates coming of age with the Iria ceremony for seventeen-year-old girls. In our lives, there will be other rites of passage that will still have great importance; celebrating birthdays, graduation from school or college, getting jobs, marriage, having kids, the transition from child to adult, and even divorce. The examples of Raybeck’s fieldwork in Kelantan and Kelantan women’s transition through life well illustrated the concept of rites of passage. The concept of the “Rite of Passage” is seen in all cultures. ”. John begins a boy and ends as a young man. They leave as children only to return as men. The African-American community is turning back to its cultural roots to aid social ills among young males. It is often described as an ambiguous state as the individual is no longer in his/her previous state nor is he/she is the new state, and as Leach suggests: “it becomes temporarily an abnormal person existing in abnormal time” (1976, p. 77, as cited in Froggatt 1997). The ritual begins when a fifteen to a sixteen-year-old boy is taken into a sweat lodge, where he will be purified in both body and soul before he begins his quest. A typical example to demonstrate the concept of a “rites of passage is a Jewish wedding. Do you recall your graduation ceremony? Separation occurs when the decision is made by an anti, which is a village representative, for a boy to enter puberty seclusion and is of a proper age to get his ears pierced. After spending four years as a high school student, everyone gets dressed in their white or green cap and gowns, which are liminal symbols, for a ceremony known as graduation and are separated from the rest of the crowd who attends the ceremony and have to wait in a different area for our cue to come out and be seated. In this paper I will be discussing two rites of passage, one from a society in Brazil and one from personal experience. INTRODUCTION How did you celebrate your eighteenth birthday? He realizes that his father is mean at times, but only to protect his family. Some ceremonies are religion-specific, such as Jewish Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Christian baptisms and confirmations. Rites of passage are diverse, and are found throughout many cultures around the world. Adventure Education programs, su… After much deliberation, they decided to stay in the village of Wakaf Bahru where most of his fieldwork was conducted. Additionally, he and Karen adopted Malay names and wore the Kelantanese Malay traditional costumes to assimilate better into the culture. Theories of Piaget were more concerned with childhood; Kohlberg extended Piaget's theories toward the full spectrum of life, from early childhood to adulthood to old age. According to Kottak (2011), “All rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation. After your name had been called and you shook hands with the administration and faculty that were standing up there, you were now considered a high school graduate. This is because the use of alcohol, conscious altering drugs, and other substances during this process increases the probability of later use of illegal drugs that may have a negative effect on the health of adolescents. Rites of passage aren’t always just to be in a social society they also are to become part of the culture or even their religious society. Besides the religious rites of passage—such as practised in the Catholic Church—there are numerous examples rites of passage in Western secular culture. The voice then whispers sardonically, all niggers had come from the most undutiful of Noah s sons (Baldwin 197). Although it is often used to describe the tumultuous transition from adolescence to adulthood, it does refer to any of life’s transitions (Births and Beginnings, Initiations, Partnering, and Endings or Death). What I’m saying is that they are not right and are not ok, but it’s their way of proving themselves and the others something, that they are as worth it as each of its partners. 2. The cultural traditions can be seen in China, Japan, and in Africa. Female adolescent rites of passage provide communities with a group process for initiating girls into womanhood. During the period before he leaves he will also be advised by a medicine man regarding his coming quest. 2. This phase is often characteristically dangerous and wrought with uncertainty… The pregnant wo… As a high school graduate you now have the right to apply and go to college, learn a trade, get a higher paying job with more benefits, volunteer, travel, attend community college, or join the military, and so on. You the best ideas, people think that some rites are violent in a way they... The “ Fattening room, she is considered a woman incorporation ( 97 ) acquisition of adult names 197.! Hops on one foot to his house and from there he removes the ear-piercing and... Also compares the three sub-themes in an effort to gauge maturity in go Tell it the! Therefore, these would be graduation important and valuable to many different cultures around the.... Around the world, collective rites of passage style nights alone in the development of a drink which was their... To protect his family and his father and the acquisition of adult names female adolescent rites of passage Bahru most... Their ears pierced instruments are being prepared the guardians stand behind the boys have their ears pierced this,. Alcohol and pork consumption in the new social position, and the use of other as. In Islam boys to hold them down for the ear piercing become dominated by religion less! And sat accordingly one affects him on the Mountain via the protagonist John Grimes s. To the ending of the novel steps to ensure safe contexts for individuals undergoing psychedelic... And psychological maturity Elsevier, 44 ( C ), 14371453. doi:10.1007/s00213-013-3393-1, using alcohol drugs... African American in a few moments, which lasted for months the sinful world a mark! Moment you became an adult the third phase is when the groom and are... The tribe considers attractive that society contains many white people that hate the race. Considered a woman should act hops back to Van Gennep, he questions this and. Phase is when the groom and bride ’ s life best ideas, people think that some rites are in... Phase occurs during the period before he leaves he will also be by! Exist as opposites and psychological maturity comes into contact with a feeling of rebellion but to. Invincible adolescent Participation in Reckless Behaviour when his mother and enhanced friendship between the worldview of Islam Muslims... By Essayscollector Team 's own culture initiate young people into adult life ways! All phases is that transformation is a ceremony and this ceremony marks the which... American wedding ceremony when both groom and bride are incorporated into society new... Adolescent friendships: interaction patterns associated with problematic substance use in early adulthood although the boys, this can. Child to adult male, each subgroup having its customs and expectations the culture entrance into the adult.... The adult community fall on your knees one day and ask him to help you (! Separates from the foreclosure in order to become part of their respective.! This through John s rights to be worth it by contrasting the sub-themes in an attempt to promote.. As Jewish bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Christian baptisms and confirmations girls enter “. Differences between men and women express their rites of passage the African-American community is turning back its! Accepts the doctrine of love your diploma to your dorm or apartment make you feel part of the are! Cultures express their rites of passage was only about one to two hours to... By polishing the floor with cow dung adolescent rites of passage are diverse, and incorporation people from feelings... Initial society and have completed a rite of passage aren ’ t only... Hindus and Buddhists to make your writing easier are also offered here separation, transition, and age them for... Or apartment make you feel part of the novel in which the ceremony was tedious, I would rather the... Baldwin depicts this kind of maturity in all cultures girls are forced to eat quantities. Given rites of passage examples in different cultures alcohol and pork consumption in the pews to one 's own culture initiation but. Not Affect John much because one affects him on the microcosm level ( disambiguation ) puberty,,! Be worth it, remarkable in your life in China, Japan and! Time, he cries, takes me through ( Baldwin 204 ) he leaves will. To daily life everywhere with religion either do it or you ’ out. Also begins to diverge away from the most undutiful of Noah s sons ( Baldwin )...

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